Chrystal, the short answer is yes. Usually for one of three issues or a combination thereof. I am speaking from experience here so others can update as they may know more appropriate answers.
The three issues that result in disability are:
Kidney disease: Kidney failure is covered by a national program administered by the Social Security Administration and it governs both benefits related to the treatment of Kidney disease and of course Federal Social Security Disability payments.
Loss of Sight: This can be either partial or total blindness, many times caused by diabetic retinopathy though not always. I imagine otehr readers may be more up on this issue.
Diabetic neuropathy- loos of feeling in feet and or hands usually. However the loss of feeling is not enough to prove disability. Rather disability occurs as a result of damage to bone or tissue usually causing fracture or open sores.
In all of these cases the hurdle is very high and for each claim made most are not approved. As you will no doubt notice the usual hurdle for federal disability is very high.
There is also private disability insurance which may be a slightly more advantageous threshold but still diabetes in and of itself is not a disabling condition.
Let me know if I can help in anyway.