I'm coming out the other end of this situation and I have some advice, or at least I can share my experience in hopes it helps somebody else out.
I'm a type 1 diabetic that needed short-term insurance. Contrary to what I thought, I was able to get decent coverage for just a month.
I used, and liked, ehealthinsurance.com. I used several other web sites (one advertised a lot on TV) that essentially just spammed my contact information to a bunch of shady insurers with extremely sketchy policies (no maximum out-of-pocket annually, for example.) I have no involvement with ehealthinsurance at all. Their people were friendly and helpful, followed up, and offered advice that would save us money (and not necessarily benefit them.) One of their reps told my wife, for me at least, the best thing would have been to use COBRA if I needed it (you have 60 days after termination to enroll) but then just not pay it if I did't need it. My company was too small to offer COBRA but I still thought it was cool they suggested that. Pretty savvy.
I used my old insurance to get all the medication I'd need during this gap. So I looked for a policy with a big deductible, this one was $5,000. In 2013, we're still dealing with pre-existing condition clauses. Hopefully that won't be an issue for me in this two week period. The pre-existing condition situation basically means you can't make any diabetic-related claims for 12 months.
One other tip: I've always just taken the family policy from my employer, but by putting the rest of the family on another policy, you can sometimes save some money. One problem with this though, is now we have two deductibles to meet.
I called Blue Cross and they told me they'd insure me for about $450 a month. On ehealthinsurance I found a policy for $90 from the same insurer, Anthem. I applied online and was deemed a level 4 because of the diabetes. Basically they just multiply the premium (by the level), so it would have been $360. But that was $100 cheaper than buying it directly from Anthem, over the phone. By the time Anthem got through underwriting it, half the month had passed since the date I asked it to start, Feb. 1. So I asked them to move the date, and they were willing to pro-rate it. Since the policy was retroactive I was able to do this a couple times when we talked and save some $.
I found both of these companies good to work with and wanted to pass it along. And also wanted to share that it is possible for a type 1 to get short term insurance. Hope this helps!